Trauma and Discrimination Stressors Among Socially Marginalized Groups

Learning Objectives

When given information about trauma origin and development participants will

  1. Describe the difference between PTSD and C-PTSD and understand the effects of each on individuals’ lives,
  2. Identify at least two marginalized groups in the United States and factors that contribute unique stressors faced and how these are connected to trauma, and
  3.  Develop an understanding of clients’ experiences as well as how to recognize such themes and intervene with trauma-informed approaches in a clinical setting.


Bhui, K., McKenzie, K., & Bhugra, D. (2002). Racism and Mental Health: Prejudice and Suffering (1st ed.). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Fernando, S. (2017). Institutional Racism in Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology: Race Matters in Mental Health (Contemporary Black History) (1st ed. 2017 ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.

Haines, S., Strozzi-Heckler, R., & Poo, A. (2019). The Politics of Trauma: Somatics, Healing, and Social Justice. North Atlantic Books.

Helms, J. E., Nicolas, G., & Green, C. E. (2010). Racism and ethnoviolence as trauma: Enhancing professional training. Traumatology, 16(4), 53–62.

Jackson, F., Jackson, L., & Jackson, Z. E. (2018). Developmental Stage Epigenetic Modifications and Clinical Symptoms Associated with the Trauma and Stress of Enslavement and Institutionalized Racism. Journal of Clinical Epigenetics, 04(02), 1–50.

Presenter 1

Learn more about Michele Figuero, LPC


Western Michigan University Alumni, Psychotherapist at Health for Life Counseling Grand Rapids and The Trauma-Informed Counseling Center of Grand Rapids, EMDR level II trained, Mental Health Crisis Consultant

Presenter 2

Learn more about Dr. Hiral Patel, LP


American School of Professional Psychology / Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Psychotherapist. Dr. Patel has over 10 years of experience providing individual and group therapy to clinically and multi-culturally diverse population. EMDR Level II trained, and trained in Hypnotherapy.

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The Trauma Informed Counseling Center Of Grand Rapids

Learn more about the Trauma-Informed Counseling Center of Grand Rapids

Learn more about Counseling and Therapy services at Health for Life Counseling Grand Rapids

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